Joyous Jail Bird

Joyous Jail Bird

The occasion, purpose, recipients, and opponents of Philippians

Philippians is easily Paul’s most joyful letter… even though he’s writing from behind bars. How joyful? Well, the Greek noun  χαρά [chara, “joy”] occurs five times, and the verb χαίρειν [chairein, “to rejoice”] occurs nine times in this short letter; only Luke with twelve has more occurrences of the verb—that Christians are a rejoicing people must be pretty important, huh? (Carson, 512)

Paul is joyful for many reasons: He’s writing to a church he knows. It’s the first church he ever founded (Acts 16:6-40). And its a church whom he loves dearly (1:7-8). Paul is writing to let them know that he is OK (even though imprisoned). He is also writing to say thanks for a gift and that Epaphroditus (a native Philippian sent to assist Paul) is doing fine after a near-fatal illness and should be commended for a job well done. However, this is much more than an extended, “Thank You” letter! Just as any true friend would, Paul points out some problem areas for the members of Philippi. It is a scary thing to be as bold as to correct someone you love, but not saying anything at all (although safer) doesn’t demonstrate pure Christian love.

The chief theme is encouragement. “Paul wants to encourage the Philippians to live out their lives as citizens of a heavenly colony, as evidenced by a growing commitment to service to God and to one another.”[1] However, encouragement is just the beginning. Paul is concerned that the Philippians continue to make progress in their faith as well.[2] He then shows what spiritual progress looks like and offers himself as a model (while also commending Timothy and Epaphroditus). Yet, he is quick to point out that the supreme example of living the Christian life is Jesus. By following Christ’s example they have hope that God will vindicate them and thus they can rejoice (1:18, 3:1, 4:4).[3]

There is not enough evidence to prove where Philippians was written. Although it is speculated that Paul wrote this letter from Caesarea or Ephesus, Black leans towards Rome as “the traditional location for the provenance of the captivity epistles.”[4] Paul spent two years imprisoned in Rome, which is “a sufficient length of time for Paul to have authored all four epistles.”[5] Paul’s traveling companions are mentioned in the letters, Luke’s presence in Rome is evident by the “we” passages in Acts 28. Luke is also named in Philemon 24 and Colossians 4:14 as being with Paul while he wrote the captivity epistles.[6] Even though Rome can’t be fully proven, there is more evidence for it as the location than any other location.

Who were Paul’s opponents? I think an easier question would be: who was not an opponent of Paul in Philippians? Paul has trouble with the Jews (even though when he first arrived at Philippi there weren’t enough Jews to constitute a proper synagogue),[7] the Judaizers, and early Gnosticism. He was fighting trouble from within and without. To sum it up: Paul’s fight was of more than one kind.[8] There were false teachers and legalists. Paul really had his work cut out for him! Even so, Paul remains upbeat and strenuously promotes unity. Paul even includes a hymn (2:6-11). Whether this hymn was written by Paul or was popular at the time is unknown. But the fact that this is the only time Paul encourages through poetry is noteworthy.

It is possible that the reference to libertarianism “”their god is their stomach” and perfectionism point some critics to a pre-gnostic teaching.[9] Paul warned against the legalism of the Judaizers, who emphasized circumcision and fleshly ordinances (3:1-3).[10] Paul responded to each of his critics by trying to gain clarity regarding the opponents he was confronting. Paul called for the maturity of the letter’s recipients and called for them to do as he did: admitting you are not perfect, forgetting past mistakes, and pressing towards the goal (3:12-16). Paul warned against troublemakers and appealed for unity, prayer, and high-mindedness (4:1-9). Paul saw disunity as a kind of sin.[11] Finally, he urged the Philippians to have noble, pure, and praise-worthy thoughts.

One last thought on the purpose of the letter:

Could it have been that Paul was just checking in? Is there anything wrong with that? Just checking in because you are aware that someone might be worried about you? Of course not. We all do that! Also, the members at Philippi may have now questioned Paul’s credibility. Imagine today if something similar happened to any one of us: We started going to a church and then the guy who planted it moves on to plant another one. Then, shortly later, we hear that he has been arrested and is in jail! What would we think? Had we been duped? Was this guy a con-artist? Obviously he is a criminal or he wouldn’t be in jail, right? Well, I think some (if not all) of those thoughts would come to mind in even the most devout Christian. So, Paul is letting them know that he is fine and that he is ministering now even in captivity. In fact, Paul is now able to reach people he could never access specifically because of his time in jail. All appointments are God-ordained, even the ones we may not understand or think are appropriate.

Philippians is an easy church with which to identify: they have problems too. What church doesn’t? Sometimes we are too hard on ourselves thinking that other churches do not have problems to sort out. Nothing could be further from the truth. Churches are made of people and people are fallible. If a church planted by Paul has trouble, then you can expect any church to have trouble. But that is why we look to the Lord for guidance, wisdom, discernment, and love!


[1] Crossway Bibles, The ESV Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008), 2,275.

[2]Ibid., 2,276.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Thomas D. Lea and David Alan Black, The New Testament Its Background and Message. 2nd ed. (Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2003), 435.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] F. F. Bruce, Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free, (Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000), 219.

[8] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), 511.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid., 447.

[11] Ibid., 448.


Bibliography

Bibles, Crossway The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008.

Bruce, F. F. Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000.

Carson, D A., and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2005.

Lea, Thomas D., and David Alan Black. The New Testament, Its Background and Message. 2nd ed. Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2003.


Submitted to Liberty University Baptist Theological Seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of the course NBST 520 New Testament Orientation II

A Letter With No Address

A Letter With No Address

The Occasion, Purpose, Recipients, and Opponents of Ephesians

Although the Bible we hold today says “The letter of Paul to the Ephesians,” the phrase “in Ephesus” (1:1) is omitted in some of the most early and significant manuscripts. Without a definite address, this has prompted speculation that Ephesians “was originally meant as a circular letter.”[1] There is nothing against the view that “one letter was sent to a number of churches.”[2] Some have suggested that Ephesians was “sent perhaps to churches throughout Asia and Ephesus kept a copy of this letter without an address. . . as time passed, readers outside of Ephesus might have assumed that Ephesus had initially received the letter.”[3]

If we wanted to write a mass letter to several churches today, we would just leave out the address, then make copies, and plug in the different names. However, we live in an easy time of carbon paper and photocopiers. Paul’s technology was significantly slower. Each copy would have to be painstakingly handmade.[4] Therefore, the circular letter hypothesis has difficulties. Carson and Moo conceded that we might never know for sure who the letter was originally intended, but the traditional view of the church of Ephesus is probably best.[5]

There was no specific occasion or problem that inspired the letter to the Ephesians though Paul does mention that he desired for them to know how he was faring in confinement.[6] Paul is writing during his two-year “captivity”[7] in Rome toward the end of his life (which would mean a date in the early 60s.[8] He’s letting a church that he started and that he loves know that he is ok.

The purpose for the writing, however, can be ascertained: its words to a church Paul sees as needing further instructions on some important aspects of faith.[9] Actually, due to the letter’s impersonal nature, “public speech” seems a more appropriate label than “letter.”[10]

Paul gives this speech/letter an overall hint of the “cosmic redemptive work of God in Christ”[11] to counter the fact that Ephesus had a reputation as a “center for the learning and practice of magical arts,”[12] In fact, the phrase, “Ephesian writings” carried with it the connotation of spells, sorcery, and other such enchantment hocus-pocus. It is then no surprise that Paul leans heavily on phrases such as, “the ruler of the kingdom of the air” (1:21, 2:2, and 3:10) and to the “spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms (6:12).[13] He is defending the One True Faith in a language they understand.

Seeing as Paul intimately knows these people it may seem strange that Paul remains so impersonal throughout his letter. However the following principle appears to apply to the Pauline writings: “the better Paul knew a church, the fewer personal greetings he included, and the less he knew a church, the greater number of personal greetings he added.”[14] In Romans 16, Paul uses several personal greetings, even though he didn’t know any of them. But, Ephesians “contains no personal greetings at all because Paul did not wish to single out individuals in a congregation he knew so well.”[15] Given today’s temperamental and easily offended church attendees, one can appreciate Paul’s diplomatic handling of such situations.

There are no apparent opponents of Paul in these areas that we can tell from the letter. We can only imagine that he had his usual trouble with the Judaizers. I suppose we can also say the general atmosphere of Ephesus and its fixation on the occult could be seen as an opponent in itself. We could also view the “possible tension between Jewish and Gentile Christians” as an opponent although an interior one.[16]

 Looking at this last possibility, Paul strenuously promoted unity and responded by enlightening his readers of the “mystery (1:9, 3:14-15, 6:19)” now explained. This mystery was “a deep and hidden truth that none of us could have worked out but has now been revealed by God.”[17] And that mystery is the inclusions of Gentiles (5:8-10). Paul is calling for universal Christian unity: Wives or husbands, children or parent, slave or master, and Jew or Gentile all are constructed into one humanity (2:11-22) and one membership.[18] “This kind of love leads Paul to speak of ‘a profound mystery—but I am talking about “Christ and the church’ (5:32).”[19]

 

            One last thought on the purpose of the letter:

Could it have been that Paul was just checking in? Is there anything wrong with that? Just checking in because you are aware that someone might be worried about you? Of course not. We all do that! Also, the members at Ephesus may have now questioned Paul’s credibility. Imagine today if something similar happened to any one of us: We started going to a church and then the guy who planted it moves on to plant another one. Then, shortly later, we hear that he has been arrested and is in jail! What would we think? Had we been duped? Was this guy a con-artist? Obviously he is a criminal or he wouldn’t be in jail, right? Well, I think some (if not all) of those thoughts would come to mind in even the most devout Christian. So, Paul is letting them know that he is fine and that he is ministering now even in captivity. In fact, Paul is now able to reach people he could never access specifically because of his time in jail. All appointments are God-ordained, even the ones we may not understand or think are appropriate.


[1] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), 488.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Thomas D. Lea and David Alan Black, The New Testament Its Background and Message. 2nd ed. (Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2003), 437.

[4] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, 488.

[5] Ibid., 490.

[6] Crossway Bibles, The Esv Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008), 2,258.

[7] Thomas D. Lea and David Alan Black, 431.

[8] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, 486.

[9] Ibid., 482.

[10] Ibid., 490.

[11] Crossway Bibles, The Esv Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008), 2,258.

[12] F. F. Bruce, Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free, (Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000), 291.

[13] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, 492.

[14] Thomas D. Lea and David Alan Black, 438.

[15] Ibid., 438.

[16] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, 490-491.

[17] Ibid., 495.

[18] Ibid., 479.

[19] Ibid., 496.


Bibliography

 Bibles, Crossway The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008.

Bruce, F. F. Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000.

Carson, D A., and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2005.

Lea, Thomas D., and David Alan Black. The New Testament, Its Background and Message. 2nd ed. Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2003.


 

Submitted to Liberty University Baptist Theological Seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of the course NBST 520 New Testament Orientation II

A Rich Roman Pharisee

A Rich Roman Pharisee

The Background of Paul

Here is a description of Paul’s exclusively unique background. Simply put, he was raised a rich Roman Pharisee. He was born in the prosperous Roman capital city of Tarsus. Paul called it “no ordinary (‘mean’ [KJV]) city” (Acts 21:39) in the sense that it was enlightened and cultured. In fact, Tarsus was famous for its higher learning schools. Believe it or not, Tarsus even rivaled Athens or Alexandria in its pursuit of philosophy and the liberal arts.[1] Bruce says today we would call Tarsus “a university city.”[2]

More importantly, Paul was a citizen of Rome. With that citizenship came all kinds of sought-after privileges. As a Roman citizen, Paul had the right to “a fair public trial, exemption from certain ignominious forms of punishment, and protection against summary execution.”[3] He most likely inherited this privilege from his well-to-do family.[4] Its assumed Paul’s past relatives “had rendered some outstanding service to the Roman cause (presumably tent making).[5]

Paul was most proud of his Jewish heritage. He belonged to the tribe of Benjamin (Romans 11:1) and called himself a “Hebrew of Hebrews” (Phil. 3:6). A devout Jew from his orthodox upbringing, Paul—by his own account—was a Pharisee (Acts 22:3). He was educated at the feet of the top Pharisee of the time, Gamaliel.[6]

It is difficult to determine a chronology of Paul’s life because of the nature of his writings: Paul wrote letters for specific issues.[7] He wasn’t giving history lessons or an itinerary journal. Paul’s letters were intended to correct, lead, or encourage people, situations, and whole churches. On the rare occasion he does give a time indicator, it is random and unclear (such as, “a year and a half,” or “some time later”).[8] This is why the book of Acts is important in the procedure of determining a timetable of Paul’s life. Luke was with Paul most of the time and by matching up the Pauline letters with his missionary trips, a rough time line can be constructed. However, some argue that the “Pauline letters provide the primary data for reconstructing a life of Paul and that Acts, because its historical accuracy is questionable, should be used only in those places where its accuracy can be validated or where it corroborates data attained from a study of the letters.”[9]

The most important evidence that can be used in determining a chronology of Paul’s life is the Gallio Inscription during his Second Missionary Journey.[10] Paul appeared before Gallio in Corinth likely in the summer of A.D. 51 and probably stayed there eighteen months, which allows us to estimate his second journey from A.D. 50-52.[11]

This is a brief overview of Paul’s life and missionary activities. In 35, Paul was converted. In 45 or 46, he visited Jerusalem. Paul had his first Missionary Journey from 47-48. He met with the Apostolic Council in 49. His second and third Missionary Journeys were from 50-52 and 53-57, respectively. From 57-59, Paul was imprisoned in Caesarea. He voyaged back to Rome in 60 and was held captive there until his release in 76. Paul then ministered in the East until his martyrdom in 76 or 68.


[1] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), 355.

[2] F. F. Bruce, Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free, (Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000), 35.

[3] Ibid., 39.

[4] Carson, 355.

[5] Bruce, 37.

[6] Ibid., 43.

[7] Carson, 360.

[8] Thomas D. Lea and David Alan Black, The New Testament Its Background and Message. 2nd ed. (Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2003), 349.

[9] Carson, 360.

[10] Lea, 350.

[11] Ibid.


Bibliography

Bruce, F. F. Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000.

Carson, D A., and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2005.

Lea, Thomas D., and David Alan Black. The New Testament, Its Background and Message. 2nd ed. Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2003.


Submitted to Liberty University Baptist Theological Seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of the course NBST 520 New Testament Orientation II

From Saul to Paul

From Saul to Paul

An Overview of Paul’s Conversion Experience

Let me start out by pointing out that according to today’s scholars, the term “conversion” is a modern concept. Paul would not know what being “converted” even means. Paul did not convert from Judaism to Christianity; he was already a devout Jew.[1] This “revelation” of Christ to Paul is more aptly described as “a ‘call’ experience and not a ‘conversion’ experience at all.” [2]

In Acts 9:1-19, Luke is the narrator. He tells us that Saul was traveling to Damascus armed with letters to the synagogues allowing him to arrest any belonging to the Way. As he was traveling, a light from heaven flashed around him and he fell to the ground. He heard a voice asking him why he was persecuting the Lord. The speaker reveals Himself to be Jesus. Jesus instructs Saul to go to the city. Saul got up but was now blind. He stayed in Damascus three days while he fasted. Annias was instructed by the Lord to go to Saul and heal his blindness. Saul regains his sight, is baptized, and regains his strength. This experience convinced Paul that Jesus was indeed the Messiah.[3]

In Acts 22:3-16, Paul himself, is the narrator as he addresses the crowd before being taken away. The events of Paul’s conversion are practically the same. Paul specifies this time that it was noon when he encountered the Lord. The healing by Ananias is slightly different. The mention of scales falling off of the eyes is not mentioned as is in the 9:1-19 account. This passage has more dialogue whereas the previous has more action.

In Acts 26:8-9, Paul is on trial before Fetus, King Agrippa II. His defense involves listing all the times he persecuted early Christians. He thought to himself that he had to do many things hostile to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. He thought he was doing the right thing for any faithful Jew in his position!

The chief difference between the three reports of Paul’s conversion are about the people with Paul; one account says that Paul’s companions heard a voice but did not see the Lord (Acts 9:7) and one said that Paul’s companions saw the light but did not hear a voice (Acts 22:9).

It has been suggested that since there are discrepancies, that perhaps these accounts have been fabricated. These accounts are so similar I can’t see why there would even be a question of authenticity. When telling and re-telling a personal event, one doesn’t recite verbatim the same exact script over and over. Instead, one is inclined to tailor the story to its respective audience. Evidence for my view is that the accounts are structurally identical. Let Scripture interpret Scripture. Nothing has been embellished. There is unity and harmony in all three accounts of Paul’s conversion.

F.F. Bruce, in “Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free,” remarks on the importance of Paul’s experience on the Damascus road: “No single event, apart from the Christ-event itself, has proved so determinant for the course of Christian history as the conversion and commissioning of Paul.”[4] Paul’s story of his conversion can be used as a model for Christians today on many levels. First of all, no one is so far gone as to not be able to return to the loving Arms of the Father. Paul persecuted Christians heavily and with zeal. Also, there is humility to his story. He could have left out the unglamorous parts and painted himself in a more flattering light. Instead, Paul celebrated that if he could be saved, anyone could! He turned that zeal for darkness into a zeal for light. He became a new person, fitted with a new name and all! We, too, are born again and new creatures. That is something Christians of which any generation can relate and strive.

Lastly, we can plainly see that Paul had a personal encounter with the Risen Christ. Paul had direct revelation. As my Pastor (Dr. Rev. David Cyphers) told me, “We all want that Damascus Road experience!” But God may be in the small gentle whisper rather than the roaring wind (1 Kings 19:12). Modern Christians may not be literally blinded on the way to work by the Lord, but there are still personal encounters and direct revelation. The Lord makes Himself known to His children! Ultimately, Paul’s conversion is a story about God’s patient love for His children… even the most notoriously rebellious ones.


[1] Robert Wayne Stacy, TheDocinabox, “The Jewish Setting of Early Christianity,” accessed January 14, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FCIrVQAPZM.

[2] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), 359.

[3] Robert Wayne Stacy, TheDocinabox, “The Christology of Paul,” accessed January 14, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35FfvIyIZcw.

[4] F F. Bruce, Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free, pbk. ed. (Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000), 75.


 Bibliography

Bruce, F. F. Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free. pbk. ed. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000.

Carson, D. A., and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2005.

Stacy, Robert Wayne. 2012. “The Christology of Paul,” TheDocinabox, January 4, 2013.       Accessed January 14, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35FfvIyIZcw.

Stacy, Robert Wayne. 2012. “The Jewish Setting of Early Christianity,” TheDocinabox, July 21, 2012. Accessed January 14, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FCIrVQAPZM.


Submitted to Liberty University Baptist Theological Seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of the course NBST 520 New Testament Orientation II

Who wrote Acts?

Who wrote Acts?

A Defense for Lukan Authorship of Acts

Who wrote Acts? Did you ever wonder? Because it doesn’t say. What’s the difference—Does it even matter? Well, yeah – I’d say it kind of matters. So, here’s a 1,950 year old spoiler alert: Luke most likely wrote Acts. Not only that, but he wrote Acts as a follow-up to the longest of the canonical Gospels; The Gospel of Luke. But, how did scholars arrive at this conclusion? How do we know? Here are some factors that we can use to determine the authorship of Acts. Will the real author please stand up?

Evidence to support Lukan authorship comes in two forms, external evidence and internal evidence.[1] The external evidence is what scholars have said about the document’s author and the internal evidence are what clues we can get from the document itself.

As far as the external evidence goes, at the top of the list is the testimony of the early Church Fathers. They fully supported Lukan authorship. This testimony is both early and unchallenged. Moving on, The Muratorian Canon (AD 180) affirms Lukan authorship, as does Irenaeus in his work, “Against Heresies” (ca. AD 180). Also the Anti-Marcionite Prologues, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian in “Against Marcion” all in the late 2nd Century unanimously support Lukan authorship.

When we come to the internal evidence the case is a little harder to establish, but still pretty clear. First of all, if you look at the formal literary introduction of the prologues of Luke and Acts, both mention that the recipient as “Theophilus” (which means, “Friend of God” [whether this was an actual person or a generic term for any Christian reader is debatable]). The author also mentions his “first book” in Acts, which would indicate that Acts was a second book (or what we might call today, a sequel). The sophisticated writing styles of Luke and Acts are extraordinarily similar: Hellenistic Greek used, vocabulary, common themes, and literary devices (such as the travel narrative). Both authors have knowledge of Roman law, nautical terms, and Greek society… which points to Luke.

 The “We” Passages of Acts

If Luke wasn’t there then how did he write about it? Here is where it gets interesting. First and foremost let’s not belittle the Holy Spirit’s work in all of this. “All Scripture is God-breathed (2 Tim. 3:16).” However that process looks, the Holy Spirit was absolutely vital to the writing of Acts. Amen! Secondly, this privileged information that Luke mentions in Acts can be explained by the “We” Passages.

In Acts 23:25-30, 25:14-22, and 26:30-32, the author switches from the regular third person narrative (he, she, they) to a first person plural (we). This denotes someone who was actually there as an eyewitness. Some believe this portion to be copied from “an itinerary or diary that he himself wrote.”[2] This is intriguing for several reasons. The author obviously recognizes himself as a traveling “companion of Paul.”[3] We learn in Col 4:14 that Luke was one such traveling companion. Secondly, since the author uses “we,” he would not use his name in these instances and anyone mentioned in these passages cannot be the author. Thirdly, since this person is mentioned with Paul in chapter 27-28 as going with Paul to Rome, it is reasonable to assume that the author was with Paul as he was imprisoned.[4] While Paul was in prison he wrote many letters and mentions people by name that were there too. Luke is on that list. So if we take the names of the people mentioned in the “we” passages and subtract them from the people listed in the prison epistles, the only person is—Luke.


[1] Robert Wayne Stacy, TheDocinabox, “Lukan Authorship of Acts,” accessed January 14, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35FfvIyIZcw.

[2] D. A. Carson and Douglas J. Moo, An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), 292.

[3] Ibid., 296.

[4] Thomas D. Lea and David Alan Black, The New Testament: Its Background and Message, 2nd ed. (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003), 283.


Bibliography

Carson, D A., and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2005.

Lea, Thomas D., and David Alan Black. The New Testament: Its Background and             Message, 2nd ed. Nashville, TN: B&H Academic, 2003.

Stacy, Robert Wayne. 2012. “Lukan Authorship of Acts,” TheDocinabox, January 3, 2013. Accessed January 14, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35FfvIyIZcw.


Submitted to Liberty University Baptist Theological Seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of the course NBST 520 New Testament Orientation II

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