A Thorny Issue

A Thorny Issue

Introduction, Thesis, and Context

In 2 Corinthians 12:7 Paul says, “So to keep me from becoming conceited because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to harass me, to keep me from becoming conceited.”[1] To what is Paul referring as his “thorn in the flesh?” Was it demonic possession, physical malady, or human opposition? This study will defend the thesis that Paul’s thorn in the flesh was an actual demon.

Is harassment from a literal demon such a ludicrous idea? Matthew 9:32-33, 12:22, 17:18, Mark 5:1-20, 7:26-30, Luke 4:33-36, 22:3, and Acts 16:16-18 indicates otherwise. These are but a few Biblical passages describing demon possession, torment, or harassment. Demon possession sometimes caused physical ailments such as epileptic symptoms, blindness, and muteness. Evangelical theologian Walter A. Elwell states, “Biblical evidence abounds for the existence of evil supernatural beings who are subservient to Satan.”[2] For example, The LORD sent an evil spirit to trouble King Saul in 1 Samuel 16:14-15. In reality did Saul merely have epilepsy? More likely, it was an actual demon sent by the LORD. According to Elwell, the modern view of demonic activity has evolved into “what was termed as demonic activity in Scripture is now considered to include many psychological maladies, that were unknown to the first-century mind.”[3]

Let’s look at the context of 2 Corinthians. Paul spent 18 months in A.D. 55 or 56 ministering to the commercial city of Corinth during his second missionary journey.[4] After leaving Corinth, Paul heard about immorality, false teaching, and divisions in the Corinthian church. Also, they wrote to Paul with questions. Paul left Ephesus and returned to Corinth. It was not a pleasant trip (known as the “painful visit,”[5] 2:1). After righting this wayward ship, Paul then leaves again to resume his missionary journey. Paul wrote what we know today as 2 Corinthians “after receiving the enthusiastic report form Titus that his Corinthian friends had repented of their former hostility toward him (2 Cor. 7:8-11).”[6] His main concern was to defend his apostleship, exhort the Corinthians to resume preparations for the collection for the poor, and to confront his detractors.

Get to the Point

 Word Study and Exegesis

What does the word “thorn” (Greek σκόλοψ[7] “skolops”[8]) mean when Paul uses it? Is it a literal or a metaphorical thorn? As Robert M. Price humorously wrote, “it has been a thorn in the side to exegetes as well.”[9] Skolops has a short definition of “a stake or thorn.”[10] Properly, it can mean “anything with a sharp point, a thorn (sharp splinter); (figuratively) an instrument producing pain, discomfort (acute irritation), something humiliating.”[11] It can also mean, “that on which the head of an enemy can be stuck (stake).”[12] Also of note is the fact that the phrase, “thorn in the flesh” is used only in here in the entire New Testament.[13]

If we look in the Old Testament however, when God told the Israelites about the remaining Canaanites, He said they would be “thorns in their sides” (Num. 33:55). Did God literally give a thorn to the side of each Israelite? Doubtful. Did God mean that the Canaanites would give the Israelites seizures, malaria, or eye problems? Also doubtful. The idea conveyed was “they will give you trouble.” Therefore, it was a figure of speech, not a physical sickness given to them.

Heavenly Vision

In the context of the flow of his argument in 2 Corinthians, let’s look at Paul’s usage of the image of “thorn in the flesh.” Throughout the whole letter, Paul speaks of his troubles and persecutions as (amongst many others) “burdened beyond measure” (1:8), “above his strength” (1:8), and “hard pressed on every angle” (4:8). Paul had just been given a vision of Heaven. One could see how receiving such a great revelation might produce an elitist attitude. Therefore, God gave Paul “a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan” to remind Paul of his fragile humanity.

Which makes more sense: God zaps Paul with epilepsy to keep him humble (which had never occurred before)? Or God allows an evil spirit to torment Paul (as he did with King Saul)? Granted, both seem out of character for God. Regardless, can modern readers interpret “messenger of Satan” as anything than a messenger of Satan? It is reasonable to assume that “thorn in the flesh” was a figure of speech; God did not give Paul a literal thorn. But was “messenger of Satan” a figure of speech? A personal theory of mine is that just a momentary glimpse of the splendors of Heaven was too much for any man to handle. Therefore, Paul’s human body was permanently affected for the rest of his days (similar to Moses’ glowing face after encountering God).

A Thorn is a Thorn is a Thorn

Possible Options for Paul’s “Thorn”

There are numerous options for understanding Paul’s “thorn.” The ESV Study Bible offers the following explanation:

“The most frequently proposed possibilities are: (1) Paul’s inner psychological struggles (such as grief over his earlier persecution of the church, or sorrow over Israel’s unbelief, or continuing temptations); (2) Paul’s opponents, who continued to persecute him; (3) some kind of physical affliction (possibly poor eyesight, malaria fever, or severe migraines); or (4) some kind of demonic harassment. Most commentators cautiously prefer some form of the third view, since ‘thorn in the flesh’ would seem to suggest a physical condition.”[14]

The ambiguity with which Paul handles this subject prompts multiple explanations. Perhaps Paul left it unspecific because it was personal: it was between God and Paul. Perhaps the Holy Spirit left this issue ambiguous in order for it to be universal to any (generic) trial. Throughout the ages, scholars have tried to crack this nut and offer what was most likely the culprit to Paul’s impairment. Let’s examine a few.

Physical Malady

Did God inoculate Paul with epilepsy? This is the most common and current scholarly explanation. Paul covertly meant that God gave him malaria,[15] leprosy,[16] sexual temptation,[17] or insomnia.[18] It has also been proposed that Paul’s habit of using amanuenses, gives credibility that perhaps his eyesight was afflicted. F.F. Bruce states that any explanation “is no more than a guess.”[19] Bruce also remarked, “by giving his self-esteem a knock-out blow and keeping him constantly dependent on the divine enabling, proved to be a help, not a handicap.”[20] The figurative nature of the translations favors this interpretation. However, Mark A Seifrid in his Pillar NT Commentary on 2 Corinthians downplays the likelihood that Paul’s “thorn in the flesh” was a kind of chronic physical malady and states, “The details are irrelevant. What is significant is his experience of constant suffering. Precisely because he describes his suffering only in metaphor as a “thorn,” his experience has become a comfort to countless Christians through the centuries.”[21] William R. Baker in The College Press NIV Commentary states, “It is generally agreed that Paul’s use of ‘thorn’ is figurative, to refer to some form of continuing or recurring aggravation and perceived hindrance to his gospel mission.”[22]

Human Opposition

Was Paul actually referring to people who were opposing him throughout his ministry as messengers of Satan? Was the “messenger of Satan” actually other people? Jean-Paul Sartre might agree with that statement. For instance, this messenger could refer to Alexander the coppersmith, who did Paul “a great deal of harm (2 Timothy 4:14).” Or, as Bruce speculates, “a continuation of the political circumstances which had made him leave Thessalonica.”[23] Although this option could be imaginable, take into consideration that Paul never used this sort of imagery in reference to human opposition before and therefore seems out of character for Paul to use it only here. Of all the persecution Paul suffered throughout his entire Christian life, for Paul to talk about it in Corinthians as “messengers of Satan” doesn’t fit Paul’s usual literary consistency. Of course, there are always exceptions to the rule, but this is not a very compelling exception. There’s also the hypothesis of combining demonic possession with human opposition. In other words, perhaps demons were influencing human opposition. It would be just like Satan to use demons to deceive and seduce the Corinthians (as he does with us today). Verbrugge interpreted Paul’s thorn as “some sort of physical affliction or possibly of those opposing him (He also notes that “torment/harass” is used figuratively).”[24]

Demonic Possession

Was there literally a demon assigned to harass Paul for the rest of his days? Was the thorn not an “it,” but a “he/she?” The Greek word for “messenger” here is aggelos (ἄγγελος[25]). It is defined as “an angel or messenger”[26] and refers to a created being. Just as God has angels, “Satan also has angels (Matt. 25:41).”[27] Walter A. Elwell mentions:

Satan’s present work is widespread and destructive. God permits his evil activity for the time being. Demons must do Satan’s bidding . . . As far as the saved are concerned, Satan is in continued conflict with them (Eph. 6:11-18), tempts them, and seeks to corrupt and destroy their testimony and even their physical life (1 Cor. 5:5; 1 John 5:16).[28]

Just as demons are subservient to Satan, Satan is subservient to God.[29] Was this an instance of God removing His hedge of protection and allowing a demonic angel limited access?

The word translated “to harass me” is the Greek kolaphizo (κολαφίζω). Mounce translates it as, “torment.”[30] It means, “to buffet or strike with the fist, (literally ‘knuckles’) to make the blow sting and crush. The idea is striking with something sharp and painful, sticking deeply in the flesh so it remains there.”[31] Also note that the verb is in the present tense, “signifying recurrent action, indicating a constantly repeated attack.”[32] The blows would hit as waves would a shore. Well, that doesn’t sound like a physical malady to me. Doesn’t sound like other people either. Sounds like something with fists and knuckles that repeatedly hit Paul. Sound far-fetched? Remember that an angel once “stuck Peter on the side and woke him up (Acts 12:7)” in prison, can a demon do likewise?[33]

Which is More Compelling

Within the context of Paul’s writings, which is more compelling and convincing? Given the evidence and the meaning of the Greek behind the verse, human opposition seems incorrect seeing as “messenger” is singular and personal (“given to me”). Physical malady as a interpretation seems too much like reading into the words an idea that Paul never intended. Vergrugge notes, “that physical ailments are not implied in the OT uses of the word.”[34] I know it’s not very popular to hold a high view of Scripture and its literal interpretation, but Job can attest to demonic attacks… unless of course, you don’t believe there really was a Job! Satan was permitted to afflict Job and in a similar way, was he was also allowed to afflict Paul? True, it is hard to convince anyone that there was a demon that hung around Paul and hit him for the rest of his life, however that is precisely what Paul said. To say that Paul was being metaphorical and that he really meant that he had malaria or that Paul’s enemies decided to step up their persecution after he visited Heaven doesn’t seem a very convincing explanation. As Price noted, “This picture may seem to some readers a bit too outlandish to be plausible, but let the reader keep in mind that he is already dealing with the story of a man who claims to have visited heaven one day! Given a camel of this size, why strain at the mere gnat proposed here?”[35]

The 2 Corinthians/Galatians Relationship

What is the relationship between what Paul says about the “thorn in the flesh” in 2 Corinthians and what he says in Galatians 4:13 and Galatians 6:11? If we look at Paul’s statement in Galatians 4:13, he says he first preached the Gospel to the Galatians through a bodily illness. Was this the demon? Was this malaria? Or was this infirmity the result of Paul being stoned almost half to death and left for dead and then having to walk 20 miles away? As A. T. Robertson put it, “Known to the Galatians, this generally refers to a sickness of some kind: eye trouble? (Gal. 4:15); thorn in the flesh? (2 Cor. 12:7); an attack of malaria? (cf. travel in marshlands suggested in Acts 13;14); we do not know.”[36]

In Galatians 6:11 Paul wrote with big letters so one can see that it is his actual handwriting. However, some argue that his large printing was due to an inflammation of the eye because God had given him a thorn in the eye, (as it were) which made it hard for him to see. Or, like John Hancock, who signed the Declaration of Independence with a signature bigger than everyone else’s so that the “fat old King could read it without his spectacles,”[37] did Paul sign comically big so the Galatians would know without a doubt that it was actually Paul?

Let’s also look at 2 Corinthians 11:13-15. Here Paul talks about Satan’s penchant for “masquerading as an angel of light” and how it is not surprising then, “if his servants also masquerade as servants of righteousness.” This gives credence to the potential of human opposition such as Paul’s constant problem group; the Judiazers. “Messengers of Satan” could be misdirecting and corrupting human puppets against Paul.

The Messenger’s Boss

Conclusions

Paul’s thorn in the flesh may never be properly explained. David Abernathy lamented that “we must be content to leave it unexplained.”[38] Verbrugge likely stated that this mystery eternally “remains obscure.”[39] Was it a demon, migraines, or false teachers? Only an elect few know for certain: God, Paul, and the Corinthians. The fact that this issue is still debated and that there is such a numerous variety of hypothesizes, indicates that we may never know. Bruce states that any proposition “can be neither proved or disproved.”[40] Add it to your list of things we’ll have to wait to ask Paul in person.

C. Thomas proposed what we can know: “Although the giver of the thorn is left unnamed, there can be little doubt as to his identity. To understate the case, the vast majority of scholars identify the giver as God.”[41] God allowed—whatever ailment it was—to keep Paul humble. We can know who sent the messenger. God is sovereign and therefore rules over every little thing no matter whether it is seemingly good or seemingly bad. As S. Page pointed out, it is gloriously ironic how “God uses one who, according to 1 Tim. 3:6, was condemned for his pride (Satan) to purge the apostle of pride!”[42] Modern Christians are still in need to be humbled. We always will be. We are impaired with the human condition and the terrible human tendency to exalt ourselves. We may not have a literal thorn in the flesh, a physical suffering, or human opposition (as Paul did), but we still have thorns in the flesh morally speaking. We have numerous shortcomings inherit to our unredeemed humanness. Really, who among us is not in need of humbling?

Speaking of needing humbled, given the evidence and research, I still hold to my initial interpretation that this “messenger of Satan” was a singular personal evil spirit given to Paul to harass him even though every scholar I researched said it was figurative. People much smarter than me have come to the conclusion that it was a physical malady, but people way smarter than me also used to think that the world was flat. Nothing in my lexical analysis points to anything other than a literal interpretation. However, I fully humble myself and concede that I am most likely incorrect. Like I said, Paul will tell me someday what really happened!

Issues for Further Study

There is certainly endless material to read and study regarding this issue. For some scholars it is a pet project. Interesting issues for further study include instances of God transforming apparently bad circumstances into blessed occurrences, Paul’s resilience in the face of constant adversity, and ministering to souls who are obviously being actively attacked by Satan’s messengers.

If it were a physical illness and Paul traveled from major city to major city, why was there never a medical cure? Did he even look for one or did Paul resign himself to chronic pain? In Corinthians 12:8, Paul asked the Lord three times to remove this thorn in the flesh. All three requests were, apparently, denied. How often do we appeal to the Lord for deliverance and are rejected? How often do we see this rejection—negatively—as a loss instead of—positively—as an opportunity to live out 2 Corinthians 12:9, God’s “power is made perfect in weakness?”

No one likes to live in pain, but sometimes it is God’s will to take your mind off of yourself and onto Him. C.S. Lewis stated that God uses suffering and pain to “shatter the illusion that all is well . . . Everyone has noticed how hard it is to turn our thoughts to God when everything is going well with us.”[43] Lewis also calls pain God’s “megaphone,” through which He shouts at us to get our attention. It is our nature to take pride in our self-reliance. However, this arrogance is our greatest folly. Lewis stated, “Divine punishments are also mercies, and particular good is worked out of particular evil.”[44] The “thorn in the flesh” may have been God’s megaphone to Paul.

Finally, just as with Job, there seems to be (as J.C. Thomas puts it) “a kind of cooperation between God and Satan on this occasion.”[45] Such a statement cues the debate of whether “God allows Satan to take such action or that Satan unknowingly accomplishes God’s will in his work.”[46]


[1] Crossway Bibles, The ESV Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008), 2,238.

[2] Walter A. Elwell, ed., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2001), 331.

[3] Ibid., 333.

[4] Thomas D. Lea and David Alan Black, The New Testament Its Background and Message. 2nd ed. (Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2003), 408.

[5] A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, Concise ed., ed. James A. Swanson (Nashville: Holman Reference, 2000), 433.

[6] Thomas D. Lea and David Alan Black, 418.

[7] James Strong, The Strongest Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, 21st ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001), 1,141.

[8] William D. Mounce, Interlinear for the Rest of Us: the Reverse Interlinear for New Testament Word Studies, Bilingual ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2013), 551.

[9] Robert M. Price, “Punished in paradise (An exegetical theory on 2 Corinthians 12:1-10).” Journal For The Study Of The New Testament no. 7: 33-40. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015), 35.

[10] W.E. Vine, Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words: with Topical Index (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996), 629.

[11] Ibid., 629.

[12] New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, abridged ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2004), 530.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Crossway Bibles, The ESV Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008), 2,238.

[15] F. F. Bruce, Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free, (Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000), 163.

[16] Robert M. Price, “Punished in paradise (An exegetical theory on 2 Corinthians 12:1-10).” Journal For The Study Of The New Testament no. 7: 33-40. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015), 35.

[17] David Abernathy, “Paul’s thorn in the flesh: A messenger of Satan?” Neotestamentica 35, no. 1: 69-79. New Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015), 69.

[18] A.T. Robertson, 433.

[19] F. F. Bruce, 135.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Mark A. Seifrid, The Second Letter to the Corinthians (The Pillar New Testament Commentary) Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2014).

[22] William R. Baker, 2 Corinthians (Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing Company, Inc., 1999), 430.

[23] F. F. Bruce, Paul, 227.

[24] Verlyn D. Verbrugge, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, abridged ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2004), 3,469.

[25] Verlyn D. Verbrugge, 41.

[26] W.E. Vine, 405.

[27] Verlyn D. Verbrugge, 41.

[28] Walter A. Elwell, ed., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2001), 1,054-5.

[29] Sydney H. T. Page, “Satan: God’s Servant.” Journal Of The Evangelical Theological Society 50, no. 3: 449-465. New Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015), 465.

[30] William D. Mounce, 551.

[31] Joseph Thayer and James Strong, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Coded with Strong’s Concordance Numbers, Rei ed. (Nashville: Hendrickson Publishers, 1995).

[32] W.E. Vine, 630.

[33] Robert M. Price, “Punished in paradise (An exegetical theory on 2 Corinthians 12:1-10).” Journal For The Study Of The New Testament no. 7: 33-40. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015), 38.

[34] Verlyn D. Verbrugge, 5,022.

[35] Robert M. Price, 37.

[36] A.T. Robertson, 462.

[37] “John Hancock,” The Biography.com website, accessed February 2, 2015, http://www.biography.com/people/john-hancock-9327271.

[38] David Abernathy, 69.

[39] Verlyn D. Verbrugge, 5,022

[40] F. F. Bruce, 163.

[41] J. C. Thomas, “‘An Angel from Satan’: Paul’s Thorn in the Flesh (2 Corinthians 12.7-10).” Journal Of Pentecostal Theology 9, 39-52. New Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015), 42.

[42] Sydney H. T. Page, 464.

[43] C.S. Lewis, “The Problem of Pain,” in The Complete C.S. Lewis Signature Classics. (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 609.

[44] C.S. Lewis, “Surprised By Joy: The Shape of My Early Life,” (New York: Harcourt, 1955), 77.

[45] J. C. Thomas, 52.

[46] Ibid., 44.


Bibliography 

Abernathy, D. “Paul’s thorn in the flesh: A messenger of Satan?” Neotestamentica 35, no. 1 (2001): 69-79. New Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015). Bibles, Crossway The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008.

Baker, William R. 2 Corinthians. Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.

Bibles, Crossway The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008.

Biography. “John Hancock.” Accessed February 25, 2015. http://www.biography.com/people/john-hancock-9327271

Bruce, F. F. Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 2000.

Elwell, Walter A., ed. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2001.

Kruse, Colin. 2 Corinthians (Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Ivp Numbered)). Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2008.

Lea, Thomas D., and David Alan Black. The New Testament, Its Background and Message. 2nd ed. Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2003.

­­­Lewis, C.S. “The Problem of Pain,” in The Complete C.S. Lewis Signature Classics. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.

———. Surprised By Joy: The Shape of My Early Life. New York: Harcourt, 1955.

Mounce, William D. Interlinear for the Rest of Us: the Reverse Interlinear for New Testament Word Studies. Bilingual ed. publication place: Zondervan, 2013.

New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Abridged ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2004.

Page, S. H. T. “Satan: God’s Servant.” Journal Of The Evangelical Theological Society 50, no. 3 (2007): 449-465. New Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015).Peterson, David G. The Acts of the Apostles. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2009.

Price, Robert M. “Punished in paradise (An exegetical theory on 2 Corinthians 12:1-10).” Journal For The Study Of The New Testament no. 7 (April 1, 1980): 33-40. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015).

Robertson, A.T. Word Pictures in the New Testament. Concise ed. Edited by James A. Swanson. Nashville: Holman Reference, 2000.

Seifrid, Mark A. The Second Letter to the Corinthians (The Pillar New Testament Commentary). Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2014.

Strong, James. The Strongest Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. 21st ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001.

Thayer, Joseph, and James Strong. Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Coded with Strong’s Concordance Numbers. Rei ed. Nashville: Hendrickson Publishers, 1995.

Thomas, J. C. “‘An Angel from Satan’: Paul’s Thorn in the Flesh (2 Corinthians 12.7-10).” Journal Of Pentecostal Theology 9, (1996): 39-52. New Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2015).

Vine, W.E. Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words: with Topical Index. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996.


Submitted to Liberty University Baptist Theological Seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of the course NBST 520 New Testament Orientation II

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About mrpatvincent

Follower of Jesus. Lover of my wife and daughter. Professional Goofball.
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